The 39 Steps: Madeleine Carroll as Pamela

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

“It’s not much of an exaggeration to say that all contemporary escapist entertainment begins with ‘The 39 Steps”’ – screenwriter Robert Towne (ChinaTown)

It’s a sentiment that Alfred Hitchcock, the film’s director, would surely have shared. He regarded the 1935 release as one of his favourite pictures. He even remade it (in a fashion) as North by Northwest, itself often regarded as the ‘American’ version. So what’s so special about The 39 Steps? It’s true that it introduced many of the themes that were to preoccupy Hitch throughout the rest of his filmmaking career, including the innocent man, wrongly accused, a too-charming villain, an inept police force… and The Blonde.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

The blonde in question is Pamela (played to perfection by Madeline Carroll), who our dashing hero Richard Hannay (Robert Donat) first encounters on the Flying Scotsman. He’s there because he’s evading the police – wrongly suspected for a murder – and is off to the bonny Highlands to ‘solve’ the mystery. From the very beginning the relationship is tempestuous, so of course you know that means (*spoiler*) they’ll end up together. But part of the thrill in watching The 39 Steps lies in knowing how it will end, but not caring. Hannay, desperate to evade his pursuers, stumbles into Pamela’s carriage, where she is the sole occupant. The resultant meet-cute is one of Hitch’s finest, but Pamela scuppers her place in history by revealing Hannay’s whereabouts to Scotland Yard’s finest.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935Pamela is introduced in such a way – the most provocative spectacle removal you ever did see – that it’s clear that’s not Hitch’s only role for her. She’s too alluring for that. That’s another quality The 39 Steps has in spades, although that’s not all down to Carroll. Hitch was a master at sexual in-jokes and puns and they abound here, especially in the later scenes where, for various reasons, Hannay ends up being handcuffed to Pamela. Unwillingly bound together, they are forced to spend the night in a hotel, masquerading as a besotted young couple. Both leads play off each wonderfully, with Pamela by turns furious with Hannay, then surprised by his caring gesture to dry her wet stockings off by the fire. His concern for her welfare always falls on the right side of chivalrous, even when he’s helping her out of her hosiery.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

In a scene full of subtlety, the pair are forced to share a bed – an awkward and intimate act familiar with newly-weds everywhere (well at least at the time of the film’s release). Under another director, this scene could have reverted to stereotyped gender roles, but focusing on the unwanted handcuffs and the enforced bond, Hitch created a partnership of equals, where a man wasn’t overawed by a sharp and intelligent female.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

Of course, Pamela is an ice-cool Hitch blonde. Although she’s not quite as frosty as some of his later creations, she shares certain characteristics with Lisa Fremont, Madeleine Ester et al. – notably a certain un-ruffability, which extends to her attire. Ill prepared for prolonged handcuff action, Pamela spends most of the film in a series of pristine blouses, one with an enormous bow that frames her face, pencil skirts and low-heeled court shoes. Pamela’s look very much set the standard for the Hitchcock heroine, although the director would refine his ideal in subsequent films Carroll was the first. Interesting, Hitch wasn’t convinced that the actress was the right choice for the role, initially concerned she might be too prim for the role. One anecdote suggests that Hitchcock prepared Carroll and Donat for their handcuff scenes (some of the first to be shot) by leaving the duo bound together whilst he attended to an urgent technical matter. He didn’t return for hours, by which time they had ample time to get to know each other, and were better prepared for the shots.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

It’s interesting to note that female characters drive the plot of The 39 Steps, which was based on John Buchan’s famous novel of the same name. The first, Annabelle (Lucie Mannheim) is an exotic mystery. Hannay meets her at a music hall, and she invites herself back to his apartment where he serves that well-known aphrodisiac haddock, only for her to be shot in the night, instigating the hero-on-the-run storyline. The second ‘driver’ is Pamela (she also returns in the closing ‘act’) followed by Peggy Ashcroft, a crofter’s wife who persuades her husband to offer Hannay a bed for the night then helps him to escapes once the police appear over the Highland hills.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

These drivers have the effect of splitting the film up into shorter stories, and indeed the mood often changes with each new ‘story’. The early mystery angle is replaced with a borderline-screwball / romance, but Hitch gets away with it because the lead characters are so strong. The plot is never surprising – ponder it too long, and you’ll discover holes to sink the Marie Celeste. Muse about the ‘meaning’ and feel cheated. And lets not mention the discussion about whether The 39 Steps is Hitch’s most misogynistic film. Instead, watch for the humour, come for the characters, marvel at the implausibility’s (think: bullets dodged by concealed hymn books) and stay for the wardrobe that maintains elegance under fire.

The 39 Steps - Alfred Hitchcock 1935

This post is part of the Madeleine Carroll blogathon, hosted by the wonderful Tales of the Easily Distracted and Silver Screenings. Read all the posts celebrating the life of this wonderful actress here.

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13 thoughts on “The 39 Steps: Madeleine Carroll as Pamela

  1. Ha ha! I liked your comment about dodging bullets with concealed hymnbooks. And also your observation about Madeleine immediately turning Donat over to the police. That scene was a real surprise the first time I saw it – usually the heroine protects the hero, for pete sake! But I like that Madeleine’s character is her own woman and doesn’t easily fall into the typical leading lady pattern.

    Wonderful post! I’m so glad you reviewed this movie. Thanks for joining in the blogathon fun!

    1. Thank you for co-hosting such a wonderful tribute (and for allowing me to cover the same film as you!) I always forget about that hymn book and then…what do you know! there it is!

  2. Great review – I was interested in your point about how the women propel the plot. Will watch for that when I see this film again, hopefully soon!

    1. Yes, it was something that struck me on the most recent watch and then – during the research for this post – I read that Hitch envisaged it as a series of shorts and it kind of made sense.

  3. It’s funny that you too were struck by the oddness of the haddock. Loved your line about it, btw. This film doesn’t get old. I think it’s partially that she gives him up to the police. I’m sick of the impressionable-woman-doesn’t-give-up-the-criminal-but-it’s- OK-because-he’s-a-good-guy plot. A smart woman–like Pamela–wouldn’t fall for such an apparently flimsy tale like his.

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